invitation

September 1, 2009 Leave a comment

Ditujukan untuk semua alumni wilayah Jabodetabek, untuk dapat hadir di acara buka puasa pada:
Tempat : Kubang Sahardjo
Hari : Jum’at
Tanggal : 11 September 2009
kehadiran uda, uni, rekan2 sangat kami hargai sekali.
Waktu : 17.00 – 20.00 WIB

Categories: Uncategorized Tags:

website HMTI

April 13, 2009 Leave a comment

Alhamdulillah telah selesai di buat website HMTI dengan link address : http://www.hmti-unand.co.cc/ semoga ada manfaatnya. Blog ini tetap ada, dan berita-berita terbaru seputar teknik industri universitas Andalas, mahasiswa dan jurusan akan tetap dipublish di blog ini dan juga akan dipublish di website…

salam

Admin

Categories: Uncategorized

The internet era: technology defines new industrial engineering.

April 13, 2009 1 comment

By Subramoniam, Suresh
Publication: Industrial Engineer
Date: Wednesday, October 1 2008

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING IS undergoing a sea of change in the Internet era. The profession used to be synonymous with time study and work sampling, two areas that we rarely hear of today (at least in verbiage). This article presents the importance of the recursive relationship between business process

reengineering (BPR) and information technology, which is termed new industrial engineering in Saudi Arabia and other countries. Enterprise applications and enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems in particular are establishing an ample scope for reengineering that will ideally match the skills profile of an industrial engineer.
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BPR applied to IT is the quintessential example of today’s IE agenda for productivity improvement and cycle time reduction. In the area of project management and engineering management, communication and collaboration have undergone radical changes due to developments in Internet-related technologies, setting the stage for BPR by integrating such technologies with the existing project management software. This integration makes project management software more versatile and fetches dramatic improvements in contemporary measures of performance: cost, quality, service and speed.

Basic principles of a corporation that evolved over the past two centuries are becoming obsolete due to the disappearance of boundaries with the invention and use of advanced technologies. The need of the hour is to work differently, not merely working harder than ever before, to maintain competitive advantages. Inflexibility, delayed response, absence of customer focus, intolerable overheads and lack of innovation coupled with bureaucratic delays characterized function-oriented thinking, which has largely been replaced with process-oriented thinking.

Management guru Henry Fayol’s introduction of the concept of efficiency through planning in 14 principles of management that capped modern operational management theory inspired others. The scientific school of management pioneered by Frederick Taylor and enhanced by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth transformed organizational productivity through automation. These markers in the profession of industrial engineering hinted at more revolutionary technology to come.

Verifying the value of BPR

Studies conducted at Harvard, MIT and 19 reputed companies show that there is a recursive relationship between business process reengineering and information technology.

BPR was coined only in the recent past when management researchers met at MIT to identify management techniques for the 1990s. Improvements in the business process through the application of IT further sharpen the tools that are used for process redesign. In sync with these tools, new industrial engineering embraces the application of IT and the capabilities offered by software, computers and telecommunications in reconstructing the workplace. It is also imperative from the conclusions drawn by the experts that it is possible to reengineer business processes without putting IT into action, too. This is clarified further by management experts by terming what Henry Ford did in 1910 in his automotive manufacturing plant, without the use of computers, as nothing but true BPR.

BPR is built around technological innovation that radically changes the way products and services are produced or delivered. A relationship between cost-saving technologies such as automation and performance benchmarking has been identified to have the ability to transform organizations to the same degree as Taylorism did in the past. Industry players and academics alike have stated that radical change can be achieved only by replacing old ways with new ways of carrying out business operation without even seeing how the processes were carried out in the past.

Business process management has emerged as a structured generic approach to analyze and continually improve business activities. G.J. Lyons of the Association for Information Systems says that re-modeling of the IT component is a necessary condition but not sufficient for satisfying the requirements in bringing in the transition toward process-based business organizations. Changing customer needs, intensifying competition, transition and change are inevitable in the new economy, which definitely cannot be modeled based on division of labor in line with management theory of the past. That type of modeling will only benefit stable economies with predictable customer needs.

Total quality management and just-in-time are only incremental techniques. A business process is defined as “a set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined business outcome,” which brings customers (either internal or external) and organizational boundaries. BPR focuses on execution redesign of individuals, internal systems and processes in response to external forces in order to achieve sophisticated objectives that cannot be accomplished by the stopwatch or one-dimensional production wall chart. We work and function in an era that relies on sustainable results. BPR transforms a company from one based on functions, such as accounting, marketing and manufacturing, to one based on processes, such as order processing and fulfillment of customer expectations, cutting across the boundaries of departments.

Opportunities for doing BPR are endless after implementing the ultimate business information system of today–enterprise resource planning. ERP, in short, is a real-time information system with a centralized data repository that aids the process-oriented approach. It supports multilocation, multicurrency and multilingual activities, maintaining its availability to the fullest extent around the clock. In the book, Enterprise Resource Planning Systems, Daniel O’Leary provides case studies that demonstrate the appropriate industry and company matches to ERP. According to O’Leary, a best match between selected ERP systems and companies’ existing practices can only have a match rate of 80 percent. For the other 20 percent, usually company processes are process reengineered to get 100 percent fit in order to avoid costly ERP software changes.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Thinking one step further in this direction, it is possible to imagine that developments in IT are still lying unturned. After all, there are several ways to build intelligence in information systems including neural networks, expert systems, belief networks and genetic algorithms. The primary idea behind an expert database system is to integrate expert systems with databases so that the new class of resulting data management systems will have the capability of analyzing database information using “if” and “then” rules while optimizing the recursive search when processing logic rules over data. Artificial intelligence techniques are widely used in knowledge management in many organizations to convert knowledge into asset.

IT as BPR enabler

In The Financial Times Guide to Strategy, author Richard Koch says BPR is appropriate only if the existing weakness of the corporation can be corrected either by a combination of strategic means and BPR or BPR alone. For example, the same information can simultaneously appear in more than one place through the use of shared databases, demonstrating that experts, to some extent, can be substituted with expert systems. Businesses need not choose between centralization and decentralization as both modes of functioning are available simultaneously in the intranet. Decision support tools can assist managers in the process of making decisions. Wireless application protocol devices can substitute field offices and physical infrastructure. Interactive network communication like teleconferencing has proven to be as effective as in-person communication. Automatic tracking of material using bar codes and RFID can substitute error-prone manual material tracking. Revised drawings and schedules can appear instantaneously by making use of high-performance computing and speedy processors.

In the 1960s, computers were used only to automate routine business tasks like payroll, which is simple multiplication of number of hours worked with hourly rate and then subtracting from the result taxes and other deductions. Material requirements planning (MRP), a computerized inventory control and production planning system responsible for scheduling the production of all items in the main assembly, was used in the 1970s for raw material ordering based on the order at hand. A decade later, MRP gave birth to manufacturing resources planning to execute capacity planning in production scheduling and give feedback on progress in finance, distribution and human resources functions, which when integrated with networks resulted in ERP of the 1990s.

Until this point of evolution, information systems provided insight only regarding internal operations of the organization and could not exchange information directly with customers or other companies. This evolving need for exchanging information between companies and customers resulted in a new breed of information system, prompting the embodiment of reengineering or forced reengineering itself. ERP today supports both “front office” and “back office” functions. Front office functions include sales force and marketing automation, electronic commerce and supply chain systems; back office functions support order management, financial management and warehousing, distribution, quality control, asset management and human resources.

The most apparent change from ERP to ERP II is a change in focus from one that is preoccupied with internal resource optimization and transactional processing to a new focus on process integration and external collaboration. ERP II application deployment strategies relate to information that is exchanged between two or more businesses over the Internet. This exchange of information electronically via the Internet is known as collaborative commerce or c-commerce. New industrial engineers team up with ERP for engineering data control, sales, purchase and inventory, MRP, resource flow management, work documentation, shop floor control, maintenance and logistics.

ERP systems allow sharing of realtime information between manufacturers, customers and suppliers. It is ideal for small companies and medium-sized companies to effect better supply chain management. For example, the quote to shipping time gets reduced considerably from several weeks to a few hours after ERP implementation. Outsourcing systems or employing consulting firms during planning and implementation stages rarely works due to conflicting views that cannot be accepted internally by the enterprise personnel. There is a limit to which consulting firms can be involved in the internal decision-making process of the enterprise. The bottom line is that use of the Internet is acceptable from the business point of view with eyes on increased productivity, better communication and cost reduction. This is not to say that security and support are not concerns among portals that connect people worldwide; however, the intranet (otherwise, the back end) is constantly being upgraded to deal with threats.

Exposed: A better way

Organizational structures of the past have a hierarchical structure in which each floor or department handles only one function with a primary goal and objective. Decision making is restricted very much to the scope of the function. Though economist Adam Smith’s division of labor and engineer Alfred Sloan’s principles of control and accountability have the advantages of training anybody to perform a task and making everyone in the hierarchy accountable, the main ill effect is that no one is responsible for the process as a whole. Too many people handle one process. A process can be defined as “a collection of activities that takes one or more kinds of input and creates an output that is of value to the customer.” Take an order replacement, for example. Smith and Sloan’s process may have shown the benefits of two people working on the order together. However, if they produce five reports that record the same errors on two computer screens, there is no level of accountability or benchmarking that could have allowed for time-and cost-saving techniques.

An improved process using reengineering has only one screen for input of information that combines the acceptance of rejected lot and performs the issue of free goods as replacement. Activities on the screen can show the region where changes were made as a result of the reengineering carried out. This saves time thereby speeding up the process and reduces the number of reports generated from five to four. This also expedites the process of customer complaint processing.

Though this example presents only a simple process redesign, many enhancements are possible on this example like tracking the carrier whose shipments regularly get damaged and maintaining a schedule for salvaging damaged returned goods and so on. Modeling is easier in software as physical changes are not thought of first for process improvement. Various options can be studied prior to implementing the most optimally redesigned process flow.

Most of the projects in the Internet era share designs using computer-aided design (CAD) to develop and compare design alternatives as in collaborative commerce. This can take place without holding a physical meeting, resulting in huge productivity improvement by saving time and travel expenses and speeding up the project. Doesn’t the very nature of savings appeal to all industrial engineers?

In the past, walking around was necessary to monitor and collaborate on projects. This physical mobility has been substituted by virtual project management (VPM) in the present era. VPM, as presented by Terry Krile and Paul Juell at the Small College Computing Symposium at North Dakota University, is defined as the results of technological advancement–mainly client servers, databases and Internet-related tools. Simply put, workers can collaborate over the Internet without leaving their offices, therefore saving valuable resources like time and money. There is software to form collaboration on routine project-related functions like scheduling, network analysis, cost analysis and critical-path generation. Project management tools like Microsoft Project, Primavera Systems and SureTrack Project Manager can perform the network analysis, cost analysis or generate schedules. Some of them also have the feature of e-mail integration and Web-based communication, using screen shots and project data that can be communicated online for updating, approval or review.

Project domains integrated with communication and collaboration domains are yet to be generated for fully tapping the benefits in project management. But some products have tapped the market.

WebProject is an all-Java implementation focused on the collaboration and communication aspects of teamwork. Its features, like real-time chat, e-mail and threaded discussion groups, support distributed decision making. Even online meeting is facilitated by integrating services of the consulting partner, CONSENSA. Simultaneous, multiple window viewing helps easy access to project data. The PlanTrack module of WebProject is developed in Java to define projects and tasks and assign services over the Internet. It also has the feature of importing and exporting projects from other leading software like Microsoft Project. The main advantage of WebProject is its platform independence due to Java and location independence due to Web readiness.

Business process reengineering tapping the advantages of developments in IT has already become the main agenda for the industrial engineer. The introduction of ERP is really a boon to the profession as some level of optimality checks are already built into the system. In the Internet era, IEs need only redesign processes that raise them to their optimal level. In the past, IE professionals struggled to reach heights near the suboptimal level of performance without the help of computing machines. Again, rapid development is taking place in the field of project management in communication and collaboration in the Internet era. These are all excellent examples of today’s IE agenda for productivity improvement and cycle time reduction.

In this continued path, new industrial engineering will save and enhance relationships between manufacturers, customers and suppliers, reinvigorating commerce worldwide.

Suresh Subramoniam is an assistant professor in the College of Business Administration of Prince Sultan University in Saudi Arabia. Subramoniam holds a Ph.D. in management from Kerala University, where he also earned a bachelor’s degree in technology. He earned his master’s degree in systems and industrial engineering from Louisiana State University. Subramoniam is a member of the Saudi Computer Society and Indian Institution of Industrial Engineering. He has been published in a variety of journals.

From :

http://www.allbusiness.com/technology/software-services-applications/11751814-1.html
atau
http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/187643269.html

Categories: Profesi

Temu Alumni Jabodetabek

March 19, 2009 1 comment

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Alhamdulillah pada tanggal 14 Maret 2009 telah diselenggarakan pertemuan sekaligus reuni alumni TI-UA wilayah jabodetabek.  Agenda temu rutin (6 bulan sekali) kali ini bertepatan dengan event yang diadakan HMTI yaitu LKTI yang diadakan di Universitas Indonesia. HMTI mengirimkan utusan sebanyak 2 tim (8 orang).

Pada kesempatan tersebut juga dibicarakan mengenai hubungan alumni, HMTI dan Jurusan. Beberapa point yang didapatkan antara lain :

- Rencana temu alumni Akbar tahun 2009

- Masukan buat jurusan buat Jurusan Teknik Industri

- Masukan buat Himpunan Mahasiswa Teknik Industri

- Musyawarah Alumni Teknik Industri Universitas Andalas

Semoga kegiatan-kegiatan ini bisa memberikan manfaat untuk almamater.

Salam Kompak Selalu

Categories: Alumni

SAP: Setan Aja Pusing (Intermezo tentang standard software SAP)

March 19, 2009 1 comment

Sebagai standard software (ERP) tampaknya SAP itu market leader nyaris tak terkalahkan. Lantas apa sih sebenarnya kelebihan SAP itu dibandingkan standard software lainnya (ERP)? Jawabnya: Mahal dan Njlimet! Itu kelebihan absolute SAP dari software lain.

Aku juga heran kenapa laku yah? Mungkin karena „S-etan A-ja P-using”. Jadi, dengan SAP kita bisa ngalahin setan… Dengan SAP, Alles ist möglich! Everything is possible. Yang jadi masalah malah user-nya yang ndak donk (ndak ngerti) bagaimana cara menggunakannya, ha…, ha…

Tapi percayalah jika kita tahu SAP luar dalam, bicara tentang business analis yang selama ini cuma ngebayangi dari dosen-2 kita ngecap, ternyata dengan SAP semua bisa direalisasikan. Riil dan nyata! Bisa buat OLAP, analisis dengan multi dimensional. Menerapkan balance score card. Membuat integrative process chain dari company sampai lebih 3 tingkat ke hulu supplier dan lebih 3 tingkat ke hilir distributor. Membuat laporan keuangan konsolidasi dengan multi accounting system, multi currency dan multi-2 lainnya. Pokoknya semua bisa sampai Setan Aja Pusing bagaimana bisa mampu mengalahkan orang-2 yang ngerti SAP ha…, ha…

Berapa harga Software SAP? Saya tidak tahu persis angkanya dan berapa lisensi yang harus dibayar oleh sebuah perusahaan yang memakai aplikasi SAP per tahunnya. Tapi jika perusahaan untuk pertama kalinya pake SAP. Menggunakan modul-2 standar FI (Financial Accounting), CO (Management Accounting), MM (Material Management), SD (Sales and Distribution), dan perangkat pendukungnya maka nilai Proyek instalasi SAP jika untuk ukuran Eropa minimal 2 juta Euro. Dari 2 Juta Euro paling banyak 40% untuk pembelian Software SAP, dan sisanya minimal 60% untuk membayar konsultan, tapi biaya konsultan bisa jauh lebih mahal lagi. Selain itu setiap tahunnya perusahaan harus membayar lisensi ke SAP. Sayang sekali saya lupa angkanya… Kenapa untuk konsultan mahal? Karena untuk meng-customizing SAP itu adalah seni tersulitnya. Terkadang harus dilakukan Business Process Design ngikutin teorinya Michael Hammer yang ndakik-ndakik itu. Lalu membuat Integrasi System dan terakhir me-matching-kan antara karakteristik standard software dengan kebutuhan perusahaan. Berapa fee yang diterima seorang Konsultan untuk pekerjaan ini? Per hari sekitar minimal 800 Euro! Jadi, ente bisa bayangin betapa makmurnya itu perusahaan konsultan SAP yang memperkerjakan para konsultannya. Tapi klo Konsultannya sih yah tergantung gaji dan bonus lah… Tapi sepengetahuan saya, gaji minimal yang diterima oleh JUNIOR Consultant SAP itu minimal 45.000 Euro per tahun plus plus plus atau minimal 65.000 USD plus 3x. Tentu saja untuk Konsultan atau senior konsultan pasti lebih tinggi lagi.

Salam,

Dari tepian Lembah Sungai Isar

Ferizal Ramli

Unternehmensberater/Corporate Consultant Finance Compentence Service Cirquent GmbH – BMW AG Group 81929 München

Diambil dari milis  SAP20-Komtek

Categories: Profesi, SAP

Simulasi Komputer untuk Efisiensi

November 28, 2008 3 comments

Simulasi bisa menghindari biaya besar akibat kesalahan kebijakanBoeing 767 Tanker

JAKARTA — Pabrik pembuat komponen pesawat di Sydney Australia itu bernama Boeing Hawker de Havilland. Perusahaan yang tahun lalu dibeli raksasa Boeing itu mengkhususkan pada pembuatan komponen pesawat terutama bagian kendali seperti flap di sayap, ekor pesawat, serta wing tip yang dipakai pesawat AirBus.

Masalahnya, sebagian besar komponen tersebut dibuat dari bahan komposit yang bahan mentahnya memiliki kedaluarsa–di antaranya hanya berumur 14 hari jika disimpan pada suhu ruangan. Untuk pembelian satu jenis material yang disebut prepreg, perusahaan ini mengeluarkan biaya sekitar A$ 16 juta per tahun (hampir Rp 100 milyar). Celakanya, dari jumlah itu, senilai A$ 4 juta (sekitar Rp 25 milyar) malah terbuang, karena material itu tak sempat digunakan sebelum umurnya habis.

Perusahaan ini kemudian bekerja sama dengan lembaga riset CRC-IMST yang di dalamnya tergabung peneliti dari University of New South Wales (UNSW) dan Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Australia. Dengan menggunakan simulasi komputer, kebijakan inventorinya dimodifikasi, dan kemudian diimplementasikan. Hasil penerapan kebijakan baru tersebut ternyata dapat menyumbang penghematan senilai US$ 250 ribu atau sekitar Rp 2,15 milyar per tahun.

Salah seorang peneliti dari tim tersebut adalah Doktor Henmaidi, kini menjadi dosen Fakultas Teknik Universitas Andalas Padang, Sumatera Barat. Ia terlibat karena bidang itu memang menjadi penelitian program doktornya.
Disertasi: Manajemen Inventori untuk Material yang Dapat Rusak di Industri Pesawat Terbang mengantarnya menjadi doktor teknik dan manajemen industri di UNSW pada akhir 2002. Versi ringkas dari penelitian itu pernah tiga kali dipresentasikan dalam konferensi internasional dan dimuat dalam proceeding edisi Australia dan Amerika.

Menurut Henmaidi, simulasi komputer merupakan metode luar biasa dalam mencari solusi suatu masalah. Ilmuwan astronomi, sangat mengandalkan simulasi komputer dalam mempelajari fenomena-fenomena antariksa. Ia menunjuk keberhasilan Sabine Stanley dan Jeremy Bloxham dari Universitas Harvard yang berhasil menyingkap misteri medan magnet yang unik di Planet Uranus dan Neptunus sebagai contoh sukses mutakhir metode ini (Koran Tempo, 17/3/2004).

Simulasi adalah metode dan aplikasi yang mecoba meniru prilaku suatu sistem yang riil. Simulasi merupakan alat analisis suatu sistem dengan cara memodelkannya, biasanya dengan menggunakan program komputer. Dalam prakteknya, pengertian simulasi ini bisa berlaku sangat umum, karena penerapannya bisda di berbagai bidang seperti sosial kemasyarakatan, industri, lingkungan, bahkan politik. Simulasi pelaksanaan pemilihan umum merupakan contoh yang saat ini sedang ramai dibicarakan.

Menurut pria kelahiran Payakumbuh, Sumatra Barat, 20 Mei 1970 ini, sistem yang akan disimulasikan dapat merupakan suatu fasilitas, atau proses aktual maupun yang sedang dalam perencanaan.

Masalah inventori
Dalam sebuah industri terdapat banyak aktivitas yang berkaitan langsung atau tidak langsung dengan pertambahan nilai (value adding). Aktifitas yang tidak langsung bersifat sebagai pendukung (support), misalnya administrasi, penyimpanan barang di gudang, manajemen SDM, perencanaan dan sebagainya. Sementara, dalam konsep value adding manajemen, aktifitas yang tak langsung menambah nilai dikategorikan sebagai sumber pemborosan, namun aktivitas ini tak boleh serta-merta dihilangkan, karena keberadaannya akan membantu kelancaran aktivitas yang menambah nilai. “Kondisi yang diinginkan adalah tercapainya kombinasi yang proporsional antara kedua jenis aktivitas itu,” ujarnya.

Menurut Henmaidi, secara teoritis proporsi terbaiknya berkisar 50:50. Artinya, jumlah aktivitas yang langsung menambah nilai sebanding dengan yang tak menambah nilai. Namun, kenyataan di lapangan banyak perusahaan dalam kondisi 10:90, hanya 10 persen aktivitas yang menambah nilai, sementara 90 persen lainnya adalah “lain-lain”, yang intinya pemborosan.

Salah satu contoh yang menarik adalah inventori (menyimpan barang-barang persediaan). “Banyak perusahaan yang tidak memperhatikan inventorinya,” ujar suami Rivi Yanti dan bapak dua anak ini. Berbagai hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai inventori itu dapat mencapai 30 hingga 60 persen dari total aset yang dimiliki perusahaan itu. Padahal untuk menjaga inventori itu, perusahaan harus mengeluarkan biaya yang mencapai 20 hingga 30 persen nilai inventorinya setiap tahun. Artinya jika perusahaan ini menahan inventori rata-rata Rp 100 milyar per tahun, maka perusahaan ini harus mengeluarkan biaya hingga Rp 30 milyar tiap tahunnya.

“Jadi perusahaan mengeluarkan biaya sangat besar untuk sesuatu yang tidak menambah nilai bagi perusahaan,” tukas Henmaidi.
Menurunkan nilai inventori, menurut dia, adalah salah satu cara untuk efisiensi perusahaan. Namun, penurunan inventori membabi buta beresiko buruk bagi perusahaan, seperti terhentinya produksi karena tak ada bahan baku. Mesin-mesin tak berjalan karena tak ada suku cadang. Atau banyaknya permintaan konsumen yang tak terpenuhi tepat waktu.

Dengan simulasi, semua sistem di industri itu ditiru dan dimodelkan menggunakan program aplikasi komputer. Berbagai alternatif kebijakan diujicoba. Masalah-masalah yang mungkin terjadi akibat pengambilan suatu kebijakan dapat dikaji sebelum diterapkan di lapangan. “Dengan simulasi biaya besar akibat kesalahan kebijakan dapat dihindari,” ujarnya.

Menurut dia, hal yang sama juga bisa dilakukan di Indonesia. Sekalipun belum ada data valid, ada keyakinan bahwa banyak perusahaan di Indonesia, terutama BUMN, yang belum efisien. Banyak peluang efisiensi yang dapat diusahakan untuk meningkatkan daya saingnya. “Penggunaan teknik-teknik analisis seperti simulasi dengan komputer ini mungkin sangat membantu perusahaan dalam menerapkan kebijakan-kebijakan baru,” ujar dosen yang juga konsultan manajemen inventori di PT Semen Padang ini.

Pernah dimuat di Koran Tempo,19/03/2004 kolom IPTEK.

From : elin ’02

Categories: Profesi

Teknik + Industri

November 13, 2008 Leave a comment

itronix_shopfloor2

Teknik : adalah penerapan ilmu dan teknologi untuk menyelesaikan permasalahan manusia. Hal ini diselesaikan lewat pengetahuan, matematika dan pengalaman praktis yang diterapkan untuk mendesainobjekproses yang berguna.

Industri : secara umum adalah kelompok bisnis tertentu yang memiliki teknik dan metode yang sama dalam menghasilkan laba. Istilah industri juga digunakan bagi suatu bagian produksi ekonomi yang terfokus pada proses manufakturisasi tertentu yang harus memiliki permodalan yang besar sebelum bisa meraih keuntungan. Dalam kasus ini sebenarnya lebih tepat disebut industri besar.

Teknik+ Industri : cabang dari ilmu teknik yang berkenaan dengan pengembangan, perbaikan, implementasi, dan evaluasi sistem integral dari manusia, pengetahuan, peralatan, energi, materi, dan proses.

Pada dasarnya, ilmu Teknik Industri dapat dibagi ke dalam tiga bidang keahlian, yaitu Sistem Manufaktur, Manajemen Industri, dan Sistem Industri dan Tekno Ekonomi.

  • Sistem Manufaktur
Sistem Manufaktur adalah sebuah sistem yang memanfaatkan pendekatan teknik industri untuk peningkatan kualitas, produktivitas, dan efisiensi sistem integral yang terdiri dari manusia, mesin, material, energi, dan informasi melalui proses perancangan, perencanaan, pengoperasian, pengendalian, pemeliharaan, dan perbaikan dengan menjaga keselarasan aspek manusia dan lingkungan kerjanya. Jenis bidang keilmuan yang dipelajari dalam Sistem Manufaktur ini antara lain adalah Sistem Produksi, Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi, Pemodelan Sistem, Perancangan Tata Letak Pabrik, dan Ergonomi.
  • Manajemen Industri
Bidang keahlian Manajemen Industri adalah bidang keahlian yang memanfaatkan pendekatan teknik industri untuk penciptaan dan peningkatan nilai sistem usaha melalui fungsi dan proses manajemen dengan bertumpu pada keunggulan sumber daya insani dalam menghadapi lingkungan usaha yang dinamis. Jenis bidang keilmuan yang dipelajari dalam Manajemen Industri antara lain adalah Manajemen Keuangan, Manajemen Kualitas, Manajemen Inovasi, Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia, Manajemen Pemasaran, Manajemen Keputusan dan Ekonomi Teknik.
  • Sistem Industri dan Tekno Ekonomi
Bidang keahlian Sistem Industri dan Tekno-Ekonomi adalah bidang keahlian yang memanfaatkan pendekatan teknik industri untuk peningkatan daya saing sistem integral yang terdiri atas tenaga kerja, bahan baku, energi, informasi, teknologi, dan infrastruktur yang berinteraksi dengan komunitas bisnis, masyarakat, dan pemerintah. Bidang keilmuan yang dipelajari di dalam Sistem Industri dan Tekno Ekonomi antara lain adalah Statistika Industri, Sistem Logistik, Logika Pemrograman, Operational Research, dan Sistem Basis Data.

(from wikipedia)

Categories: Profesi
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